Aquaculture is a fast growing sector in Nigeria contributing not less than 5% of the total fish supply but at a growth rate of about 2% per year (Moses, 2006). The establishment of new coastal settlements, such as Victoria Garden City in Lagos and Eagle Island in Port Harcourt, led to the reclaiming of lagoons and filling of mangrove swamps and estuaries for building of social infrastructures and industrial estates [77]. More than 80 percent of Nigeria’s total domestic production is generated by artisanal small-scale fishers from coastal, inshore, creeks of the Niger Delta, lagoons, inland rivers and lakes. The relevance of the fisheries sector to the Nigeria economy and benefits derived by Nigerians from fish and other fish products led to the high consumption and hence the increased demand for fisheries products. The 1992 Sea Fisheries Decree also extended the restriction placed on industrial vessels from competing with local fishers to 5 nautical miles. Several reports have indicated that several millions of the Nigerian currency is being expended on fish importation [6]. [15] on analysis of major food imports obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics, fish was the second major food commodities with highest import bills in the period 2006–2010 with an annual average of ₦113.63 billion. The majority of this fish is consumed domestically, while around 10% is exported. Based on the study of Vaughan et al. Fisheries resources are fishery products or output that comes from fishing and aquaculture [41]. In Nigeria, overfishing is caused by several interrelated factors such as increase in population, ghost fishing, and problems associated with the creation of EEZ, and inadequate data, and high interest rates on loan. It is notable that fish provides more than 60.0% of the world’s supply of protein, especially in developing countries [1]. Those Nigerian companies have fleet sizes of less than four while larger companies, with fleet sizes of four or more are owned in partnership with foreign investors [1]. Nigeria’s total annual fish demand is estimated at 2.7 million metric tonnes (mmt). Trawlers fishing in the inshore waters should use a mesh size of not less than 3.00 inches (76.0 mm) toward the cod-end and trawlers shrimping shall not use a mesh size less than 44.0 mm toward the cod-end. The current trend in marine fisheries resources and production could then be regarded as deplorable and this has been blamed on both natural and human factors. Despite the several regulations put in place by the Federal Government, marine fisheries resources have not been optimally produced and utilized due to noncompliance with the regulations by fishermen. Sharks, sail/saw fishes, as well as penaeids, palaemonids, and carid shrimps are also caught by small-scale fishermen. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? The FAO predicts that by 2030 an additional 37.0 million tons of fish per year will be needed to maintain current levels of fish consumption for an expanding world population [64]. The phenomenon of unreasonable feed ingredient ratio is more common. Through the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) we are assisting the government of Nigeria and others in the ECOWAS block to integrate fish in their national trade strategies; promote cross-border trade on some selected One-Stop-Border-Posts (OSBPs); and promote participation of women in cross-border trade. Nigeria’s internal fish production is not enough to meet its 2.7 million tons demand annually, with a current deficit of 1.9million metric tons recorded. Fresh water refers to water without salt or marine origin, such as generally found in lakes, rivers, canals, dams, reservoirs, paddy fields, and swamps; marine water refers to inshore and open waters and inland seas in which salinity generally exceeds 20%, while brackish water refers to mixed sea water and fresh water and salinity varies with the tide [40]. The contribution of the Nigerian aquaculture production has been increasing since 1995 with the contribution of 0.07% to world aquaculture production and 0.42% of world aquaculture production in 2014 [39]. All catch should be landed at port, and that no part of it may be exported away from Nigeria at sea. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. However, the vast majority of the fish supply in most cases comes from the artisanal sub-sector. Fishery resources in the inshore shrimp industry include the following in order of importance: White prawn (Penaeus notialis) (Pérez Farfante, 1967), Brown or Guinea shrimp (Holthuispenaeopsis atlantica) (Balss, 1914), Rose or red deep-water shrimp (Parapenaus longirostris) (Lucas, 1846), Stripped or tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) (Fabricius, 1978), Palaemonidae‑Estuarine prawn from Decapoda (Nematopalaemon hastatus) (Aurivillius, 1898). Also in 2014, fisheries contributed 0.48% to the Agriculture GDP and contribution of Agriculture to GDP (2014) was 20.24%. Capacity building in project management . Examples of brackish water environments are estuaries, mangroves, and mouth of rivers, where sea water enters during high tide. Thanks to some of the projects like second and third phases of Fadama, although some improvements were recorded in terms of output level of fish, the gap between the demand for and supply of fish keeps increasing as a result of the use of traditional fishing methods, as is the artisanal fishery, which has the major source of protein from fish relied on, despite the increasing growth rate of the Nigerian population. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. Nigeria is a maritime state where 9 of the 36 federal states have a coastline in the Atlantic Ocean. Some initial progress has been made in developing an industrial fisheries sector, but the fleet and infrastructure are ageing. Globally, and in Nigeria, overfishing is the primary human activity, which poses as threat to marine fishery resources. WorldFish aims to harness this experience, combined with its expertise in fish genetics, to boost aquaculture productivity and enhance nutrition and food security in Nigeria. Fish production in Nigeria comes from three sources; artisanal (inland rivers, lakes, costal and brackish water), aquaculture (fish farm) and industrial fishing (Otubusin, 2011). Fish farming means ‘raising fish commercially in tanks, ponds or other enclosures for the purpose of producing food’. Production system design and construction . This limits the trawlable area to 3.20 km2 (27.9%) out of the 11.5 km2, which Nigeria is blessed with [59, 60]. The 1995 Sea Fisheries Regulations originated from the Sea Fisheries Decree No 71 of 1992 and contains in addition to the provisions of the Sea Fisheries Decree 1992 Fish Inspection and Quality Assurance as the main text concerning the control of fishery products [52]. According to FMARD [14], Nigeria spent ₦97 billion on fish in 2010 alone in spite of all the endowed marine resources, rivers, lakes, and creeks of the nation. In Nigeria, fish alone contributes on the average 20-25% per capita animal intake and could be as high as 80% in coastal and riverine communities (FAO 2000). It is in fact regarded as a mere waste of the national resources that could have been directed to the development of the fisheries sector. According to Ejiola and Yinka [38], aquaculture is the least exploited fishery subsector with the vast brackish water fishing grounds almost unexploited. Based on sources, the fish supply to meet the increasing fish demands by Nigerians is from two major groups, which are the domestic production of fish and importation of fish. *Address all correspondence to: olaoyeoj@funaab.edu.ng, Marine Ecology - Biotic and Abiotic Interactions, Edited by Muhammet Türkoğlu, Umur Önal and Ali Ismen. The demand for fish in Nigeria mostly outstrips the local production. Nigeria is the largest fish consumer in Africa and among the largest fish consumers in the world with over 1.5 millions tons of fish consumed annually. The total marine fisheries production also increased to 105.8 million tons in 2011, but its contribution to total world fisheries production was only 68.0%. Fish makes up around 40% of the country’s protein intake, with fish consumption at 13.3 kg/person/per year. High interest rates on investment loans have prevented prospective investors in the marine fisheries industry from taking loans from commercial, merchant, development, and even microfinance banks [21]. Marine fisheries have been found to contribute significantly to the global fisheries production as well as to Nigeria when compared with inland freshwater fisheries. Fish seed production . Section 8 prohibited the use of any explosive substance, or any noxious or poisonous matter that could destroy fish within the territorial waters of Nigeria. Although conscious efforts at developing the nation’s fisheries could be said to have started in 1941, there was no real national fisheries policy in place. Importation has served as a major supply of fish in Nigeria providing more than half (56.0%) of fish supply [ 12 ]. [41] reported the total fish caught by African fishers to be 6.30 million metric tons and that 3.80 million tons (about 60 percent) was from the marine waters with Nigeria being among the top African countries in terms of total fish catch. ), various soles, catfish (Arius spp. It also contains the penalties (fines, imprisonment, or both) for contravening the provisions of this act. Application form for a license or renewal of a license to operate or to navigate a motor fishing boat within the territorial waters of Nigeria and the particulars that must be stated in such application as contained in Form A of Schedule I are prescribed in these regulations [43].
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